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The same year, the French and Indian War, the fourth in a series of wars dating back to 1689, began; it ended in 1763 with French defeat, resolving a situation that had been a constant threat to Albany and held back its growth.
In 1775, with the colonies in the midst of the Revolutionary War, the Stadt Huys became home to the Albany Committee of Correspondence (the political arm of the local revolutionary movement), which took over operation of Albany's government and eventually expanded its power to control all of Albany County.
During the 1920s a powerful political machine controlled by the Democratic Party arose in the state capital, connected to politics in New York City as well.
It marshalled the power of immigrants and their descendants in both cities.
Commencement of the fur trade provoked hostility from the French colony in Canada and among the natives, all of whom vied to control the trade.
In 1618, a flood ruined the fort on Castle Island, but it was rebuilt in 1624 as Fort Orange.
Albany constitutes the economic and cultural core of the Capital District of New York State, which comprises the Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY Metropolitan Statistical Area, including the nearby cities and suburbs of Troy, Schenectady, and Saratoga Springs.
With a 2013 Census-estimated population of 1.1 million Albany was the first European settlement in New York State.
Roughly 150 miles (240 km) north of New York City, Albany developed on the west bank of the Hudson River, about 10 miles (16 km) south of its confluence with the Mohawk River.
The city was officially chartered in 1686 under English rule.
It became the capital of New York State in 1797, following the United States gaining independence in the American Revolutionary War.
Albany is one of the oldest surviving settlements of the original British thirteen colonies, and the longest continuously chartered city in the United States.
Its charter is possibly the longest-running instrument of municipal government in the Western Hemisphere.
The Dongan Charter was virtually identical in content to the charter awarded to the city of New York three months earlier.